The free market did not support the expense of producing 100-octane aviation fuel in large volume, especially during the Great Depression. If the concentration is above 7.6%, the mixture is too rich and also does not ignite. With a boiling point near 85 °C (185 °F) (octane boils about 40 °C higher), it was well-suited for early carburetors (evaporators). The Oxford English Dictionary dates its first recorded use to 1863, when it was spelled "gasolene". The gum test essentially eliminated thermally cracked gasoline from aviation usage and thus aviation gasolines reverted to fractionating straight-run naphthas or blending straight-run and highly treated thermally cracked naphthas. [65] Material separated from crude oil via distillation, called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet specifications for modern engines (particularly the octane rating; see below), but can be pooled to the gasoline blend. By the time of Operation Overlord, both the RAF and USAAF were conducting some operations in Europe using 150 RON fuel (100/150 avgas), obtained by adding 2.5% aniline to 100-octane avgas. The chemical structures of the two different types of antioxidants used in gasoline are phenylenediamines (PDA) and hindered phenols (such as BHT). Aviation fuels are petroleum-based fuels, or petroleum and synthetic fuel blends, used to power aircraft.They have more stringent requirements than fuels used for ground use, such as heating and road transport, and contain additives to enhance or maintain properties important to fuel performance or handling.They are kerosene-based (JP-8 and Jet A-1) for gas turbine-powered aircraft. Leaded gasoline sales were banned in New York City, Philadelphia and New Jersey. [15][16] The term is used most widely in Nigeria, where the largest petroleum companies call their product "premium motor spirit". It appeared engine knocking was dependent on a wide variety of parameters including compression, ignition timing, cylinder temperature, air-cooled or water-cooled engines, chamber shapes, intake temperatures, lean or rich mixtures and others. The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of a homogeneous mixture of small, relatively lightweight hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly referred to as C4–C12). These processes had been developed during the 1930s as an effort to achieve fuel independence. [27][28] This was a major concern for aircraft designers and the needs of the aviation industry provoked the search for fuels that could be used in higher-compression engines. By 1938 the price was down to 17.5 cents a gallon, only 2.5 cents more than 87 octane fuel. Is the COVID-19 Crisis Increasing America's Drug Overdoses? Though only 3 percent of U.S. combat aircraft in 1935 could take full advantage of the higher octane due to low compression ratios, the Army saw the need for increasing performance warranted the expense and purchased 100,000 gallons. [40] By 1936 tests at Wright Field using the new, cheaper alternatives to pure octane proved the value of 100 octane fuel and both Shell and Standard Oil would win the contract to supply test quantities for the Army. into the olefin and also can promote a molecular size increase via polymerization reactions. [25] If abnormal combustion were to occur, the engine could lose enough power to make getting airborne impossible and a take-off roll became a threat to the pilot and aircraft. Three different ethanol blends are sold in the Netherlands—E5, E10 and hE15. Heinz Guderian and his Panzer divisions consumed nearly 1 U.S. gallon per mile (2.4 L/km) of gasoline on the drive to Vienna. Similar problems were reported in Sheshatshiu in 2000 and also in Pikangikum First Nation. Countries in Europe impose substantially higher taxes on fuels such as gasoline when compared to the United States. [67] Finished marketable gasoline is traded (in Europe) with a standard reference of 0.755 kg/L (6.30 lb/US gal), and its price is escalated or de-escalated according to its actual density. About 2.682 kilograms per liter (22.38 lb/US gal) of CO2 are produced from burning diesel fuel. This degradation can be prevented through the addition of 5–100 ppm of antioxidants, such as phenylenediamines and other amines. Viscosity, surface tension, and ignition tendency of fuel are important fuel property parameters in diesel fuels. Gasoline, mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines. As a result of the lessons of World War I, Germany had stockpiled oil and gasoline for its blitzkrieg offensive and had annexed Austria, adding 18,000 barrels per day of oil production, but this was not sufficient to sustain the planned conquest of Europe. [71] [72] [73]. This reality set a practical limit to how high compression ratios could increase relative to how expensive the gasoline would become. Larger oil refiners began to specify unsaturated material percentage (thermally cracked products caused gumming in both use and storage and unsaturated hydrocarbons are more reactive and tend to combine with impurities leading to gumming). Most gasoline sold in Sweden has 5–15% ethanol added. [10], In most Commonwealth countries, the product is called "petrol", rather than "gasoline". "All of the oil for the fleet was in surface tanks at the time of Pearl Harbor," Admiral Chester Nimitz, who became Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, was later to say. [30] Also the volatility was decreasing to the point that fuel did not vaporize and was sticking to spark plugs and fouling them, creating hard starting and rough running in winter and sticking to cylinder walls, bypassing the pistons and rings and going into the crankcase oil. In 1943, the Rolls-Royce Merlin aero engine produced 1,320 horsepower (984 kW) using 100 RON fuel from a modest 27-liter displacement. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats. Animosity grew between the industries, each accusing the other of not doing anything to resolve matters, and relationships deteriorated. Hence, the exact chemical composition of gasoline is undefined. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating, which is produced in several grades. [124] Opal is a non-sniffable fuel (which is much less likely to cause a high) and has made a difference in some indigenous communities. At the refinery, the composition varies according to the crude oils from which it is produced, the type of processing units present at the refinery, how those units are operated and which hydrocarbon streams (blendstocks) the refinery opts to use when blending the final product.[64]. Robert E. Allen, Director of Information, American Petroleum Institute. However, the term may also have been influenced by the trademark "Cazeline" or "Gazeline". Additives like benzene, with a freezing point of 42 °F (6 °C), would freeze in the gasoline and plug fuel lines. Army Air Forces Historical Studies: No. [38], By 1935, there were seven different aviation grades based on octane rating, two Army grades, four Navy grades and three commercial grades including the introduction of 100-octane aviation gasoline. [63] Hydrocarbons with a bromine number of 10 or above can be protected with the combination of unhindered or partially hindered phenols and oil-soluble strong amine bases, such as hindered phenols. [103] Burning E10 produces about 2.119 kilograms per liter (17.68 lb/US gal) of CO2 that is emitted from the fossil fuel content. "We had about 4 1⁄2 million barrels [720,000 m3] of oil out there and all of it was vulnerable to .50 caliber bullets. [24] Soon it was realized that motor vehicle fuels were unsatisfactory for aviation, and after the loss of a number of combat aircraft, attention turned to the quality of the gasolines being used. There are different conventions for expressing octane ratings, so the same physical fuel may have several different octane ratings based on the measure used. [21], Gradually, volatility gained favor over the Baumé test, though both would continue to be used in combination to specify a gasoline. Commercial aviation was slower to adapt to jet propulsion and until 1958 when the Boeing 707 first entered commercial service, piston powered airliners still relied on aviation gasoline. The formation of gums is accelerated by copper salts, which can be neutralized by additives called metal deactivators. The general specification by which early gasolines were measured was that of specific gravity via the Baumé scale and later the volatility (tendency to vaporize) specified in terms of boiling points, which became the primary focuses for gasoline producers. Had the Japanese destroyed the oil," he added, "it would have prolonged the war another two years. Gasoline, as delivered at the pump, also contains additives to reduce internal engine carbon buildups, improve combustion and allow easier starting in cold climates. The trucks in the convoys had to drive longer distances as the armies advanced and they were consuming a greater percentage of the same gasoline they were trying to deliver. Subsequently, low-sulfur gasoline was introduced, in part to preserve the catalysts in modern exhaust systems. Automobile compression ratios increased from an average of 5.3-to-1 in 1931 to just 6.7-to-1 in 1946. With the increased use of thermally cracked gasolines came an increased concern regarding its effects on abnormal combustion, and this led to research for antiknock additives. The development of jet engines burning kerosene-based fuels during WW II for aircraft produced a superior performing propulsion system than internal combustion engines could offer and the U.S. military forces gradually replaced their piston combat aircraft with jet powered planes. Average gasoline prices went from an all-time record low of $0.1275 per gallon ($0.1841 with taxes) in 1940 to $0.1448 per gallon ($0.2050 with taxes) in 1945. "Gasoline" is an English word that denotes fuel for automobiles. With the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in September 1940, came great concerns about the possible Japanese invasion of the Dutch Indies to secure their oil. Throughout the duration of the war, aviation gasoline supply was always behind requirements and this impacted training and operations. Combustion of gasoline produces 2.35 kilograms per liter (19.6 lb/US gal) of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.[102][103]. [63], Commercial gasoline is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. [94][95] Ethanol has been found in at least one study to damage catalytic converters. RE: What's the chemical formula for gasoline, if there is any? The debate inside the Japanese government as to its oil and gasoline situation was leading to invasion of the Dutch East Indies but this would mean war with the U.S. whose Pacific fleet was a threat to their flank. Gasoline stability requirements are set by the standard ASTM D4814. A fuel designated grade 130 would produce 130 percent as much power in an engine as it would running on pure iso-octane. By 1937, the Army established 100-octane as the standard fuel for combat aircraft and to add to the confusion, the government now recognized 14 different grades, in addition to 11 others in foreign countries. Users concentrate and inhale gasoline vapour in a manner not intended by the manufacturer to produce euphoria and intoxication. [54][55], With the war in Europe in 1939, a reality, all predictions of 100-octane consumption were outrunning all possible production. Some scientists[who?] The remainder are products ranging from tar to naphtha.[70]. Knocking can be reduced by increasing the gasoline's resistance to autoignition, which is expressed by its octane rating. [34][35] On 27 October 1924, newspaper articles around the nation told of the workers at the Standard Oil refinery near Elizabeth, New Jersey who were producing TEL and were suffering from lead poisoning. However, gasoline vapor rapidly mixes and spreads with air, making unconstrained gasoline quickly flammable. [5][6][7], "Gasoline" is an English word that denotes fuel for automobiles. The dangers of compounds containing lead were well-established by then and Kettering was directly warned by Robert Wilson of MIT, Reid Hunt of Harvard, Yandell Henderson of Yale, and Charles Kraus of the University of Potsdam in Germany about its use. Later in the war the C-3 grade was improved to where it was equivalent to the U.S. 150 grade (rich mixture rating).[47]. The "low percentage" solution ultimately led to the discovery of tetraethyllead (TEL) in December 1921, a product of the research of Midgley and Boyd. High levels of detergent can be found in Top Tier Detergent Gasolines. Apart from representatives of the two industries, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) also played an instrumental role, with the U.S. Bureau of Standards being chosen as an impartial research organization to carry out many of the studies. [122] Chronic, heavy petrol sniffing appears to occur among remote, impoverished indigenous communities, where the ready accessibility of petrol has helped to make it a common substance for abuse. Will 5G Impact Our Cell Phone Plans (or Our Health?! 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gasoline chemical formula

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