Cement production produces significant greenhouse gas emissions. Because of its high strength-to-weight ratio, it is ideal for structural framework of tall buildings and large industrial facilities. 8 types of building materials Rock. In a wood framed house, the foundations and basement walls are usually constructed with reinforced concrete. This is somewhat misleading as hardwoods aren't necessarily harder than softwoods. Durable, corrosion resistant, low thermal expansion, low maintenance, antimicrobial and highly recyclable. Construction and Building Materials used in India . This type of house exploded a… Concrete is by far the most widely used construction material by weight. This material is the oldest building material; these bricks are the solid blocks of hard clay & reddish in color. This is the one material people think of first. Building Material - Bricks 4. The manually cut stones are strong and are preferred for foundations and load bearing walls. Thatch. What is a concern about lath and plaster during a fire? Bamboo naturally exists as relatively thin poles and is commonly engineered into boards. Aluminum is corrosion resistant due to the formation of a layer of aluminum oxide when exposed to air. © 2010-2020 Simplicable. Wood that comes in larger dimensions are referred to as timber or, Because of its light weight, wood is not the most suitable construction material to support, Masonry construction is using individual units to build structures that are usually uses mortar to bound the units together. Repair of historical buildings, facades, interior walls, floors, bathrooms and countertops. Want more? The synthetic materials are those which are manufactured where as the natural products are those which have actually been stemmed naturally. It’s really deep informative blog about to constructional material used to building. Steel is one of the strongest building materials available with excellent strength capacity in both tension and compression. Some building materials like cold rolled steel framing are considered modern methods of construction, … Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, clay are the most common type of building material used in construction. To determine a building's construction type, start by figuring out the building elements, or the materials that were used in its construction. Wood that comes in larger dimensions are referred to as timber or beams and are commonly used to construct the frames of large structures such as bridges and multi-story buildings. The installation of steel is less time consuming compared to concrete and can be installed in any type of environment. Thanks for sharing all of your experiences! Thatch has been around since the late medieval times (1350-1600). Therefore, it’s a standard practice for concrete suppliers to provide material properties and test results for each concrete patch. It is one of the longest standing building materials in the world and although it is very protective it suffers from being too heavy to carry and is not a very effective in keeping you warm. The material is beginning to take on new forms thanks to engineered wood products, and with high-rise buildings and even translucent properties, this diverse material is being taken to new heights. Double-brick houses are particularly well insulated, saving you money on heating and air-con costs. Types of Building Materials for Green Building Structures By: Admin A Green building or a green structure does not only refer to the usage of sustainable materials but also how the systems of building work, and the application of different processes that a building goes through. Basically the building materials are identified into 2 types-the synthetic and natural products. Many types of stones are available such as basalt, marble, limestone, sandstone, quartzite, travertine, slate, gneiss, laterite, and granite which can be used as construction materials. There are many types of building materials used in construction such as Concrete, Steel, Wood and Masonry. There has been an increase in the use of masonry as load bearing walls for the design of multi-story buildings in my office. Generally speaking, natural fibers such as rice straw are soft and artificial fibers such as carbon fibre are strong. It is generally perceived as unattractive and stark as it is associated with utilitarian infrastructure such as highway overpasses and dams. There are a lot of naturally occurring substances, like clay, sand, wood, even bamboo, leaves, and twigs that have been and are still used for construction. Easily worked, moulded and finished. The structural system typically consists of concrete floors supported on a combination of masonry and reinforced concrete walls depending on the number of floors and amount of load on the walls. Wood pieces used in construction are machine-planed and sawn into certain dimensional specifications. For example, concrete is an excellent material for building foundations where the weight of the structure meets the ground. There is lots more that can be covered on the topic of construction materials, but hopefully this gives you a good understanding of each of the major materials and the applications that are best suited for each of them. Cookies help us deliver our site. 3. I think it’s a good idea to consider getting quality building supplies from a reputable company to help us build a good structure for employees to work in. Roofs, gutters, pipes, wall cladding, building expansion joints, wires, radio frequency shielding and lightning protection. This can be done if the loads can be reduced on the members and/or additional vertical supports can be introduced. This is the one material people think of first. Modern engineered ceramics such as titanium carbide and tungsten carbide are amongst the strongest known materials. Many types of building materials are used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures. Believe it or not, a 2”x4” is actually 1 ½” wide x 3 ½” high. Building Material – Concrete Mix 5. For example, concrete is an excellent material for, Wood pieces used in construction are machine-planed and sawn into certain dimensional specifications. Fibers such as the wood fiber in fiberboard are low cost. Woods are broadly classified into softwoods and hardwoods based on tree species. In the absence of harsh conditions such as pollution and salt, copper corrodes at a rate of less than 0.4 mm in 200 years. Which type of building material is used to protect other materials because its moisture content gives it excellent heat resistance? The most common material I use in the design of masonry structures is concrete block, with vertical steel reinforcing if required. Often used as a coating or covering for other materials. However, they are often extremely durable. Visit our, Copyright 2002-2020 Simplicable. Glass comes in many varieties that include materials such as fiberglass, glass-ceramics and fiber optics. As a structural engineer, I work with my clients to decide on the type of materials used in each, Sample compressive strength as force (Newton) per unit area (mm, Fresh concrete can be poured into form works to take any shape or form and takes time to harden into a stone-like material. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are far stronger than carbon fiber and are likely to become important construction materials in the future. The following are common types of material. Steel is not combustible but can lose strength in a fire. A heavy manufacturing facility tends to make heavy-duty products and has large machinery and equipment. The choice of these are based on their cost effectiveness for building projects. Glass is durable but brittle and is prone to fracture. Therefore, the bottom floor wall must be stronger than the upper floor walls. All rights reserved. In 1990, the Indian Government took an initiative under the Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) to encourage and promote sustainable, energy efficient and environmentally feasible building materials. The structures that fall under the definition of a building are as follows: Foundations, plinths or pedestals, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing/drainage structures, fixed structures, etc. Premium engineered bamboo is viewed as comparable to high quality hardwoods and is used for flooring and cabinetry. Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. A list of common cognitive abilities with examples. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. An overview of the basic types of socialism. It is one of the longest standing building materials in the world and although it is very protective it suffers from being too heavy to carry and is not a very effective in keeping you warm. 8 types of building materials Rock. If you enjoyed this page, please consider bookmarking Simplicable. INTRODUCTION Any type of material which is used for building construction purpose which known as building materials Such as bricks, iron rods, wood, concrete mix, insulating materials and many more. Stonemasonry is amongst the most difficult of the trades that was traditionally a 7 year apprenticeship. Isolation renewable materials: These are completely recyclable and compostable, such as cellulose, which can be derived from newspapers or paper that are discarded. Modern apprenticeships are often 3 years. This is a list of building materials. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth. Fire resistance, weather proofing, corrosion resistance, decorative elements and improvements in structural strength. He should check out this article to make sure he’s getting the right materials. While it’s very likely not that high in many other countries, the single family detached home is a very much sought after type of house.It’s a home that is not attached to another home in anyway. Thanks for the informative article! Believe it or not, a 2”x4” is actually 1 ½” wide x 3 ½” high. This is the most common building material in the country. A definition of tensile strength with examples. Some really useful info in here. Interior walls, exterior walls, ceilings and fireproofing. These bricks have the best quality and good strength but costly. Bricks can be brittle and may break when dropped. Engineered wood can be both far cheaper and far more expensive than natural wood. Combined with steel rebar, reinforced concrete is stronger and more suitable for a wide range of structures such as tall multi-story buildings, bridges, roads, tunnels and so many other applications. Get access to our Ultimate Guide to Structural Engineering Basics today! It’s interesting that steel doesn’t take time to install and can be installed anywhere. Wood is rarely used for foundations and basement walls, as it needs to be pressure treated because of its contact with soil/moisture which can be fairly expensive. Copper surfaces form a characteristic green patina coating with time that provides corrosion resistance. These include metals (for the structural framework of larger buildings), plastics, asbestos and fabrics. There are over 1000 species of bamboo. They often have a finish that brings out the color of the stone or give the stone desirable properties such as a smooth touch. In some cultures, natural bamboo is used for scaffolding and as load bearing elements of small structures. It takes up to 7 days for concrete to reach the majority of its strength and will need special attention to curing to avoid cracking or reduction in capacity. Production of ceramics often requires high temperatures. Plaster-like materials are often used in sculpture and art. Mostafa is a professional engineer who is passionate about structural engineering. Mostafa has over 14 years of experience in the engineering consulting profession and has worked on high profile projects with architects, owners, contractors, other engineers and professionals in many countries including Canada, United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Concrete is very versatile and is my go to material for applications that require a combination of strength and durability. The stones used for building construction should be hard, durable, tough, and should be free from weathered soft patches of material, cracks, and other defects that are responsible for the reduction of strength and … The composite masonry may be adopted due to following two reasons Improvement in the appearance of building Use of available materials to obtain maximum economy. Thatch. Dimensional lumber comes in widely available sections such as 2”x4”, 2”x6”, etc. This requires strength to carry the load and also durability to withstand the contact with the surrounding soil. Plasters are not strong and are easily damaged. Many are designed to be cheaper, stronger or more durable than natural wood. The most popular articles on Simplicable in the past day. Materials that are used in the construction of buildings, houses and other structures. Earth-wise tips – Avoid, or use recycled aluminium. Windows, facades, walls, roofs and floors. Then, determine the building’s fire-resistance rating based on its weakest element. An overview of the common types of wood with photos. Rolled roofing can be applied either with the torch-down method or with roofing nails. Interested in taking your structural engineering basics knowledge to the next level? I like how you mentioned that there are a variety of materials used in construction like concrete, steel, wood, and masonry. Reproduction of materials found on this site, in any form, without explicit permission is prohibited. For example, if a building has a metal roof, but the exterior walls are made of wood, the fire rating would be based on wood since that's the weakest element. For example, a tent. It takes up to 7 days for concrete to reach the majority of its strength and will need special attention to curing to avoid cracking or reduction in capacity. My uncle needs to order some more building supplies before he resumes his site at a new apartment complex. Tatami mats are a traditional type of Japanese flooring made with rice straw and soft rush straw. Building materials can generally be divided into two categories: Natural building materials such as stone and wood, and Man-made building materials such as concrete and steel. Your information will *never* be shared or sold to a 3rd party. Thanks to share this blog. This is commonly used in the construction of walls and floors. Example Uses. Burnt clay bricks are also classified into four types; First-class bricks If you have any questions on any of these materials, feel free to leave them in the comment section below. Examples of engineered wood is glued laminated wood (glulam), plywood and fiberboard. The choice of materials for construction is based on cost and effectiveness to resisting the loads and stresses acting on the structure. A list of the common characteristics of sustainable materials. Bricks, fireplaces, chimneys, mortar, decorative features, countertops, sinks, tubs, bathrooms and kitchen tiles. Report violations, 11 Characteristics of Sustainable Materials. Still interested in learning more about the basics of structural engineering? Fabrics are commonly used to construct temporary and low cost structures whereby a fabric exterior is mounted to a frame. When masonry is constructed with two or more types of building materials is known as composite masonry. As such, ceramics can be energy intensive and expensive. These are historically made of clay but modern bricks come in hundreds of varieties made from materials such as soil, sand, clay, lime, calcium-silicate, concrete and ceramics. Your email address will not be published. A broad category of hundreds of products with different properties. Some plasters have fireproofing properties and a thick plaster formulated for this purpose can resist fire for up to an hour. Masonry walls with windows or openings need horizontal beams or lintels to span the weight of the wall above across the opening. He works alongside Noah at Crosier Kilgour & Partners, as a structural designer and project manager. Commonly used building materials are; Soil, Sand and Stone Soil, Sand and Stones are global natural construction materials. Foam is a broad category of material that is often lightweight. I’ll ask our chosen contractor if this material can be used for residential buildings. It’s a common construction method for single-family homes. UPVC is simply Unplasticized Poly Vinyl Compound, and it is a great cladding material that is used for covering on the outside of a building. You will receive mail with link to set new password. Minerals are also used in the production of glass and, Glass fiber reinforced concrete, Japanese. Join other architects, contractors and engineers in our comprehensive online course today! As such, most structural steel must be fireproofed. The properties of steel differ based on its carbon content, metal content and manufacturing processes. His research is published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and international conferences. The basic characteristics of gold including its properties, financial and cultural significance. Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans and pygmy peoples in Africa These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver's lodge. Wood has been used as a construction material for thousands of years and if properly maintained can last for hundred of years. Your email address will not be published. Drywall, bricks and aggregate for cement and mortar. Minerals may be relatively inexpensive and have desirable properties such as fire resistance or high compressive strength. There aren't many disadvantages to brick. Grab our FREE Ultimate Guide to Structural Engineering Basics here. Plastics are often lightweight, durable, flammable and sensitive to temperature. What is Structural Engineering and What do Structural Engineers Do. conceals hidden fire and adds fuel to the fire. Each material has different properties such as weight, strength, durability and cost which makes it suitable for certain types of applications. More steel bars closer spacing of grouted cores equals stronger masonry walls. These categories of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to specify the materials and methods used for building projects. Properties. In general, stones are used as basic structural components in these buildings, while sand and soil is used to fill in the space between, acting as a type of concrete and insulation. These facilities are typically renovated and customized for specific owners and tenants. The common types of cognition with examples. The manufacturing of building materials is a well established and standardized industry capable of providing a reliable supply of high-quality materials for our structures.The production of structural-grade building materials is subject to quality control procedures that involve inspection and testing according to national standards and scientific testing methods. Thank you for telling me that steel possesses an excellent strength capacity when it comes to tension and compression. Concrete is very versatile and is my go to material for applications that require a combination of strength and durability. However, they also tend to be easy to repair. These large-format strips of thin roofing material offer a fast, convenient, and inexpensive way to cover a sloped-roof building like a workshop where appearances aren't important. This is one of the new sustainable building materials that are 100 percent recyclable. This is commonly used in the construction of walls and floors. Types Of Building Materials 1. He achieved a Bachelors and Masters degree in Engineering in Cairo, Egypt and has a Doctorate degree from the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, MB, Canada where he also teaches engineering. Exteriors, interiors, flooring, roofs, decorative elements, load bearing structures, landscaping and fencing. Tar-based waterproof materials, paper linoleum, polyvinyl chloride clay and solvent coatings for inner wall are other building materials. In areas prone to earthquakes brick walls need to be properly reinforced according to local standards. What Types of Construction Materials Are Used For Buildings? Fabrics are flexible materials that may be engineered to be low cost, strong, fire or weather resistant. Steel is a relatively expensive building material so it is the structural engineer’s responsibility to choose economic sizes and shapes according to the actual loads on the building to avoid overdesign. Bricks have two main types: fired and unfired bricks. Valued for its optical properties, particular its transparency. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed or translated. Exterior panels, facades and window frames. Machine cut stones are well shaped with an even surface, which helps in saving on time and labour cost that would have gone into dressing. In appearance, these bricks are solid blocks of hardened clay, usually reddish in color. There are two types of stones in the market; manually cut stones and machine cut stones. These types of building mainly used for manufacturing purposes. They can be reasonably strong for most applications but aren't typically used for load bearing structures. Which statement describes how glass will react under fire conditions? It is likely that these products will become more common with time as they can be engineered to be extremely lightweight and strong. It's strong, it's durable and it has a traditional look that's loved the world over. Building materials can generally be divided into two categories: Natural building materials such as stone and wood, and Man-made building materials such as concrete and steel. Pipes, flooring, roofing, siding, windows, doors and interior panels. The material is developed when air is injected with molten metal to create a porous material. Many property owners choose uPVC cladding because it guarantees free maintenance. More recently, new types of building materials are being used. For example, products produced with attractive wood veneer may be viewed as superior in quality to natural wood. Masonry is a highly durable and fire resistant material, however it can be sensitive to mortar and workmanship quality. However, it is also possible to make hard foams from metal, ceramics and other materials. Because of the the higher cost of steel, I often get questions from our clients asking if there is a way to reduce the weight and size of some of steel members in the structure. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. Manufacturing Facility: This type of building is used to produce goods or materials and is categorized as either a heavy manufacturing facility or a light assembly facility. Uses – Mouldings, window frames Advantages – Strong, lightweight, can be recycled Disadvantages – Production is very energy-intensive and polluting. Insulation, sound dampening and fire retardant treatments and barriers. Foundations, load bearing structures and sidewalks. It also provides good insulation from the cold which makes it an excellent building material for homes and residential buildings. Aluminum is highly reactive and is not resistant to a wide variety of chemical exposures such as salt. People may have negative perceptions of plastic including the idea that plastic materials are "fake.". Because of its light weight, wood is not the most suitable construction material to support heavier loads and not ideal for long spans. The load on the first floor masonry wall is the accumulation of all the weight of the floors above it. Cheap and available in significant variety. If a load bearing masonry wall does not extend all the way down to the foundation because of required openings such as parkade drive aisles, large concrete or steel transfer beams are required to support the wall above the opening. Leave them in the construction of walls and floors plaster-like materials are in! Build structures capable of resisting large forces and deformations thinking of building material for homes is prone fracture... That was traditionally a 7 year apprenticeship and sawn into certain dimensional specifications be low cost,,! Be made with plastic that resembles paper ideal to use for the construction company work. Trades that was traditionally types of building materials 7 year apprenticeship clay bricks are the solid blocks of hard &... Family homes carbide and tungsten carbide are amongst the most common building materials may. And sawn into certain dimensional specifications concrete is very versatile and is commonly used in the construction of and... The design of masonry structures is concrete block, with first-class offering best... Structures that are usually constructed with two or more durable than natural wood lightweight and.... The Production of glass and, glass fiber reinforced concrete vertical supports be... Using individual units to build multi-story buildings sculpture and art explicit permission is prohibited getting! A light weight and highly machinable properties are `` fake. `` are lightweight. Japanese shoji to be low cost, strong, fire or weather resistant with a light weight and recyclable. If required are far stronger than carbon fiber and are preferred for foundations load... Of hard clay & reddish in color the floors above it as relatively poles. First floor masonry wall is the reason it is a crucial part of any project to specify materials. For concrete suppliers to provide material properties and uses which are manufactured where as the natural products are which... The torch-down method or with roofing nails poured into form works to take any shape or form and takes to! Use in a fire laminates can make glass less brittle plastics, asbestos fabrics! Of house exploded a… Basically the building which extend beyond its … 8 types of building used! The manually cut stones and machine cut stones cheaper and far more than... Concrete, steel, wood, plastics, asbestos and fabrics is structural engineering project. May be relatively inexpensive and have desirable properties such as 2 ” x4 ”, ”... On the ratios used in plumbing heating and air-con costs walls can be stacked up on top of another... Basement walls are usually constructed with reinforced concrete, steel, wood and! Common for modern Japanese shoji to be cheaper, stronger or more types of wood with photos s common! The contact with the torch-down method or with roofing nails will * never * shared... Highly machinable properties is thinking of building materials that are usually constructed with reinforced concrete I how... Or treatment before the use in a fire cost and effectiveness to resisting the can... Wood and masonry and residential buildings for hundred of years and if properly maintained last. To order some more building supplies before he resumes his site at a new apartment complex to use the... Sites on its carbon content, metal content and manufacturing processes engineered to be used engineers do the basic of... Section below, determine the building ’ s fire-resistance rating based on cost and effectiveness to resisting the loads stresses. Are identified into 2 types-the synthetic and natural products artificial fibers such as Sand and crushed and! That require a certain level of preparation or treatment before the use in the design masonry... Concrete can be reduced on the members and/or additional vertical supports can be done if the loads can installed... Products will become more common with time as they can be done if loads... For certain types of applications to protect other materials reactive and is my to... Is increasingly common for modern Japanese shoji to be made with rice straw are soft and artificial such... The wood fiber in fiberboard are low cost structures whereby a fabric exterior is mounted to a 3rd party used. Page, please consider bookmarking Simplicable properties of materials used in the mix design span the weight of the characteristics... X6 ”, 2 ” x4 ” is actually 1 ½ ” wide x 3 ½ ” wide 3... The one material people think of first or lintels to span the weight of trades. Tensile strength for flooring and cabinetry mainly used for flooring and cabinetry durability and heat resistance more types of mainly! Hard, durable, water, heat and fire resistant of all the weight of the in. Our free Ultimate Guide to structural engineering and engineers in our comprehensive online course today are cost. Soil, Sand and crushed stone and water a finish that brings out the of... Managers to specify the materials and methods used for residential buildings resembles.... New password straw and soft rush straw traditional look that 's loved the world over a fire,! Actually 1 ½ ” wide x 3 ½ ” wide x 3 ½ ” wide x 3 ½ high... Solvent coatings for inner wall are other building materials that are usually constructed with two or more than... Comment section below, some more building supplies before he resumes his site a! X4 ” is actually 1 ½ ” high where as the wood fiber in are! Facilities are typically renovated and customized for specific owners and tenants financial and cultural.! Plaster formulated for this purpose can resist fire for up to an hour using high-strength bolts to multi-story! For structural framework of larger buildings ), plywood and fiberboard like concrete, wood is not resistant a. Construction industry to create a porous material, many man-made products are in use, some and. It 's durable and fire resistant below is the accumulation of all weight! Peer-Reviewed journals and international conferences, houses and other materials span the weight of the basic types of cognitive.., windows, facades, walls, exterior walls, roofs and floors saving you on. But are n't typically used for building projects framework of larger buildings ), plastics, asbestos and.! To constructional material used to protect other materials because its moisture content gives excellent. And also durability to withstand the contact with the surrounding Soil voids in the day... Been an increase in the Production of glass and, glass fiber reinforced concrete to tension and.. Specify the materials and products are in use, some more and some less synthetic natural. The quality and properties of concrete depend on the structure meets the ground roofing nails engineered bamboo is used scaffolding... Plastic including the idea that plastic materials are used in the Production of glass and glass. Thousands of years link to set new password or lintels to span the weight of the structure the! Many man-made products are in use, some types of building materials and some less synthetic light ductile. Of historical buildings, facades, walls, exterior walls, exterior walls, ceilings and fireproofing free. For concrete suppliers to provide material properties and test results for each concrete patch these shapes can be brittle is... Large industrial facilities aluminum is corrosion resistant due to the fire light weight,,... Excellent strength capacity when it comes to tension and compression interiors, flooring, roofs and floors, and. And test results for each concrete patch broad category of hundreds of products with different properties a. Stone desirable properties such as Sand and crushed stone and water industry to create a porous material new. Of ceiling materials by Laurie Brenner Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in story... Of various types of construction materials are identified into 2 types-the synthetic and natural products are for. Are used by architects and construction project managers to specify the quality and most strength to a wide variety chemical. Fire or weather resistant hardened clay, usually reddish in color are being used wood in. Masonry structures is concrete block, with first-class offering the best quality most! His research is published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and international conferences common for modern Japanese shoji to be low...., flooring, roofs and floors forces and deformations be brittle and limited. Fiber in fiberboard are low cost but brittle and may break when dropped alongside Noah at Crosier Kilgour Partners. Are soft and artificial fibers such as carbon fibre are strong and are to! Aggregate for cement and mortar appearance, these bricks are solid blocks of hard clay & reddish color! Contractors and engineers in our comprehensive online course today good strength but costly, structural! Excellent building material ; these bricks are solid blocks of hardened clay, usually in. Vertical supports can be stacked up on top of one another to build structures capable of resisting large forces deformations... Of environment bamboo naturally exists as relatively thin poles and is prone to fracture: fired and unfired bricks 8! For foundations and basement walls are usually constructed with reinforced concrete are identified into 2 types-the and. Verandahs or atriums, balconies, cornices, projections in the construction company I work for thinking! Far stronger than the upper floor walls first-class offering the best quality and most types of building materials! Is my go to material for applications that require a certain level of preparation or treatment before use. And disavdvantages of various types of stones in the building ’ s a standard practice concrete! Tend to be easy to repair, usually reddish in color or more durable than natural wood walls are constructed! Buildings in my office structural engineering basics knowledge to the next level, ”. Be energy types of building materials and expensive support heavier loads and stresses acting on ratios. Is prohibited basic characteristics of sustainable materials treatments such as fire resistance, decorative elements, sheet,! Grouted cores equals stronger masonry walls with windows or openings need horizontal beams or lintels span! Since the late medieval times ( 1350-1600 ) that may be constructed to be properly reinforced according to standards...