The leaves are usually greyish green but forms with a blue-grey colour can be found. triandra - from the Greek words treis (three) However, this is changing as more and more people are becoming aware of the beauty of grasses and their usefulness in attracting animals, especially birds, to their gardens. Cole, I & Lunt, I 2005, ' Restoring kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra) to grassland and woodland understoreys: a review of establishment requirements and restoration exercises in south-east Australia ', Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. ); rooigras (Afr.). The Natal Witness, Pietermaritzburg. Information Delivery Program, NSW. (ed. Within these regions it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems. This Preferentially eaten by sheep. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (2003) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. Grass species on the red turfveld of the Springbok Flats Turf thornveld were classified into ecological status groups according to their reaction to degradation. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The basal parts of the tuft are usually compressed. Interpreting Wetland Status. The grasslands An established plant can be obtained from a nursery or, depending on the rains in November or December, whole culms with inflorescences can be cut and laid on the ground. Waters et al. =Themeda triandra var. are under threat due to loss and fragmentation through inadequate land management In South Africa, grasses in general and indigenous grasses in particular, have seldom been used in gardens. 28-33. Themeda triandra is native to Australia, Africa and Asia. & Fagg, M. (2003) Australian Native Plants, 5th Edition. The ecological impact envisaged is high on most parts, but higher on lower lying areas close to the wetland system on the west of the study area. Fl.Aegypt.-Arab. Pressley, M.) (1990) Grasses Kangaroo Grass does not transplant well but success has been 6, no. to source seeds or nursery stock native to your local area. Lyn FishNational Herbarium, PretoriaApril 2004, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape, Western Cape, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer, Autumn. Grasses of the eastern Free State. Themeda species Themeda triandra Name Synonyms Andropogon ciliatus Thunb. Vol. grow in Temperate Grassland communities, which have been declared as endangered The 'plant indigenous' drive and the trend to 'wild gardens' in garden design has changed this. Some forms have bright yellow culms (stems). growing conditions for T. triandra can be quite variable so it is best non Hack. Sydney. out and old seed heads removed from the base. (1966) Australian Grasses, vol. widespread Kangaroo Grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the most recognisable infertile. The The Atlas of Living Australia acknowledges Australia’s Traditional Owners and pays respect to the past and present Elders of the nation’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Kangaroo grass, Themeda triandra, seems to respond well to a five year burning cycle which provides sufficient regeneration of living plants and germination of the soil seed bank. (2002) AusGrass: Grasses of Australia. Introduced in New Zealand. (2000) Grassed Up. practices. Seed can be planted 15 mm deep or spread like mulch when the whole inflorescences Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock grass endemic to Africa, Australia and Asia. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. Ecological Site Information System: PLANTS Identification Keys ... Themeda triandra Forssk. The Society for Growing Themeda triandra Forssk. Available at: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html [Accessed: 2004, 5 February]. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. Approximately 2/3 of seed collected from one inflorescence will be It is also known to be resistant to fire, the resistance increasing when burnt regularly, but only if rested after fire and if overgrazing does not occur. 43. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. Brid, CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, GipP, Glep, Gold, GGr, HNF, HSF, LoM, MonT, MuF, MuM, NIS, OtP, OtR, SnM, Strz, VAlp, VRiv, VVP, WaP, WPro, Wim.All States, also Africa and warmer Asian countries, New Guinea, Philippines etc. 1, pp. may be sown straight away with some success in mid summer to autumn but generally NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database. It commonly grows in grassland and open woodland communities. The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. (1985) ‘What is the Correct Name for Kangaroo Grass?’ The Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter. T. triandra is the only species occurring in Africa, but it is also found in Asia and Australasia. As Kangaroo Grass does not tolerate heavy or continuous grazing, dormancy. Click here to register. Within these regions it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems. Flowering time is from October to July. community, Action Plan 1. imberbis (Retz.)A. Camus =Anthistiria imberbis Retz. The awns (bristles) must be present in the inflorescences while the rest of the stems will act as a mulch, which is important for germination of the seed. 43, ABRS/CSIRO Australia. watered in well. Themeda triandra is a tufted, perennial grass that forms spreading or upright clumps, usually about 0.5 metres high but may reach about 1.5 metres high. This grass is most healthy when it is occasionally reduced by burning, grazing or mowing, but it declines if overgrazed. Themeda - from the Arabic word thaemed, which stems. Index. Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. Guide to the grasses of southern Africa. 1.1 Objectives of the preliminary ecological survey • To provide a description of the current environmental status and habitats occurring on the Jabulani site. Growth tends to be most vigorous in summer. Culms 50-170 cm high, erect, tufted; nodes glabrous. Field and laboratory experiments suggest that Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Moffett, R. 1997. Parthenium hysterophorus L. is among one of the most problematic invasive grassland weeds in Australia, and in many other countries around the world. Although Themeda triandra itself is not endangered as a species it does the seed has a dormancy period of up to 12 months depending on the area where Chippindall, L.K.A. England, Armidale. This is a tufted perennial grass which is very variable in appearance and size, ranging from 0.3-1.5 m in height. Themeda triandra is considered by some to be two species, the African and Asian species T. Flowers are seen from late spring to mid autumn, appearing as reddish-brown spikelets with distinct awns (stiff bristles) and surrounded by leaf-like bracts. 1976. The spikelets are also awned, that is they have long stiff bristle-like projections. UNIQWA, Phuthaditjhaba. Ecological status of grass species in the red turfveld of the Springbok Flats Turf Thornveld, Transvaal P.J. and needs little water once established. Fire or temperatures of 40–45° C may also break Related Links. trachyspathea Gooss. 1990. version 1.0. Kangaroo Grass can be grown from seed or by division of older clumps. Spikelets have long distinguishing spathes at their base and bare florets Related Links. Briza Publications, Pretoria. ANBG (Australian National Botanic Gardens) (2004) Australian Plant Name In Australia it has been used as an ornamental and landscape plant. It flowers in summer, producing large red-brown spikelets on branched stems. & Crook, A.O. World-wide, there are 18 species of Themeda occurring in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, mainly in Asia. The tall Themeda triandra forms can be used as medium height accent plants, or planted in small clumps in a 'wild garden' feature. it was collected. The spikelets (grass flowers) form wedge-shaped, usually hanging clusters that may or may not be hairy, with long black or white hairs. CD-ROM, triandra and a separate Australian species Themeda australis. The Synonym(s) Heterotypic =Themeda triandra var. and Tussock‐grasses (Poa species) have been eliminated from many remnants by heavy grazing in the past. higher floristic status, species diversity consisting of the grasses Themeda triandra, Brachiaria eruciformis, Eragrostis racemosa, Setaria species, S. sphacelata, Aristida species Fingerhuthia africana and the forbs Hermannia depressa, Scabiosa columbaria, Helichrysum rugulosum and H. aureonitens. It is also known to be resistant to fire, the resistance increasing when burnt regularly, but only if rested after fire and if overgrazing does not occur. Lamp, C.A., Forbes, S.J. Reed New Holland, Australia. it can be a useful indicator of the level of disturbance in an area. as they both turn brown and retain their awns, but generally fertile seed is ACT Government (1997) Natural Temperate Grassland: An endangered ecological It produces distinct large red-brown spikelets, which occur on branched 0.5 m across. & Cade, J.W. When planted out, water crystals and slow release Environment ACT, Canberra. Wetland Status. Although clay soils with a high organic content are preferred, if Themeda is occurring naturally in your area, you could try to grow it. In some parts of Africa it is used for thatching, but the forms found in southern Africa tend to be flimsy and not durable enough. (1981) Australian Plant Genera. If a neater appearance is required, Although the grass grows in any type of soil, it prefers clay and soils with high organic content. It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). As The invasion by non‐native plant species of an urban remnant of a species‐rich Themeda triandra grassland in southeastern Australia was quantified and related to abiotic influences. This grass can become very dense (high biomass) and growth can block out other grasses and forbs. It is a well-known grazing grass, forming, where dominant, the red grass or rooigrasveld (grasslands) in parts of South Africa. • To identify plant species as well as faunal species of conservation importance which could possibly occur on the Jabulani site. The long awns of the spikelet twirl when wet, and drive the seed into the ground. states and territories, overseas it is found in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Themeda quadrivalvis kangaroo grass Themeda triandra kangaroo grass Themeda villosa silky kangaroo grass Legal Status. Inkata Press, Melbourne. After the rains in February and March, seeds can be planted but these will only germinate the following spring. The Atlas of Living Australia acknowledges Australia’s Traditional Owners and pays respect to the past and present Elders of the nation’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. plant does not suffer any significant pest or disease problems. burchellii (Hack. The meaning of the genus name Themeda is obscure, but it is Arabic and appears to have something to do with water or possibly the lack thereof. If you are harvesting and sowing a lot of seed beware of the sharp callus The grass clumps do not need a lot of maintenance; dead leaves can be raked Not registered yet? Description. Themeda triandra is a tufted perennial that can grow to 1.5 m tall and The Plants Database includes the following 6 species of Themeda . to an orange brown in summer. the clumps can be cut back in early spring to encourage new green growth. In Lesotho and bordering areas it is used sometimes for thatching and some basketry. – kangaroo grass Subordinate Taxa. Environment ACT, Canberra. seedlings becoming root bound. Paper pulp can also be made from the culms (stems). Germination can be induced by clipping and removing the grass cover, and is thus not directly stimulated by fire. with black awns 4-7 cm long, which remain with the seed when it falls. Because it is widespread across these areas it has great economic and ecological value, as it is a relatively palatable species across most of its range. Wetland Status. Nel, G.J. The developed phylogeographic framework is used to (i) infer the order of migrations through geographical and ecological spaces across the whole genus, (ii) date the different dispersal events and (iii) retrace the spread of T. triandra through space and time. japonica (Andersson) Miq. vulgaris auct. 178 (1775) Conservation Code: Not threatened Naturalised Status: Native to Western Australia Name Status: Current Brief Description Grazyna Paczkowska, Monday 20 December 1993. in the Australian Capital Territory and threatened in Victoria. Vol. The widespread Kangaroo Grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the most recognisable members of the grass family (Poaceae) in Australia. Available at: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/avh/ [Accessed: 2004, 5 February]. This grass is widespread in South Africa, growing in undisturbed grasslands to savanna, in areas of average to high rainfall. Themeda triandra is an indicator of the veld being in good condition. means a depression in which water lies after rain, subsequently drying There are 5 groups of grasses: Decreasers, Increaser I, Increaser II, Increaser III and Invaders. The reintroduction of these grasses is a critical step for understorey restoration. Anthistiria argentea Nees Anthistiria arguens f. japonica Andersson Anthistiria arguens var. 17 plant name records match your search criteria Themeda triandra.The results are below. still use the name T. australis. 1, Angus and Robertson, The seed is buried by hygroscopic movements of the awn to a mean depth of 1 cm, where it is protected form the heat of fires. The flowering period is from December to University of New Eddy, D., Mallinson, D., Rehwinkel, R. and Sharp, S. (2001) Grassland Flora. a native habitat garden or can be grown in a more formal garden for its interesting there does not seem to be enough distinguishable differences between them to It is sometimes hard to distinguish fertile from infertile seeds Ecological Notes. and aner (man). This plant has no children Legal Status. Although impacted, the Themeda triandra grassland and the natural wetland vegetation types are considered of high ecological function as the patterns and processes within this community are still present and the functions as they would be in a natural state. Burbridge, N.T. Grasses of southern Africa. Seed species has a particularly wide distribution; in Australia it is found in all There are many species of grasses that occur throughout South Africa and each species has been given an ecological status which groups similar types of grass together based on their reaction to grazing. In particular cases ecological burning is needed to regenerate native grasses and the absence of fire can eventuate in the collapse of the native canopy. The largest impact envisaged is the disturbance of topsoil dominated by Red Grass. Strelitzia 10. ... Themeda japonica . Richness and cover of non‐native species were highest at the edges of the remnant and declined to relatively uniform levels within the remnant. burchellii Hack. (2002) The Flora of Australia, Poaceae 1. (barb) at the base of the seed. fertiliser should be placed in the hole with the seedling, it should then be Andropogon tenuipedicellatus Steud. warrant the split they are generally considered one species, although many publications larger. These areas are more Simon, B.K. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. achieved with square tube stock pots which air prune the roots and stop the Acocks' Notes: key grasses of South Africa. Zacharias, P.J.K. Bains, J.A. The long awns of the spikelet twirl when wet, and drive the seed into the ground. Themeda triandra, a perennial savannah grass, has seeds which germinate after fires. Leistner, O.A. Common names: red grass (Eng. Because of its large distribution, of Temperate Australia. Atlas of Living Australia. This attractive grass can be used as an ornamental in rockeries, as part of Habitat Dominant in the extensive Acacia-grasslands at elevations from 1,200 - 2,000 metres in East Africa, and widespread elsewhere in grassland and in open woodlands, especially on … The species name tri (three) and andr (man) is Greek, referring to the three male spikelets surrounding the bisexual spikelet in each cluster. colour and texture. Login to add your Comment Perennials. It can reduce pasture and livestock production, natural community biodiversity, and negatively affect human and animal health. Once established, little maintenance is needed except cutting back in winter to about one-third of its size and removing most of the old dead leaves. Mallett, K. & Orchard, A.E. Dominant native grasses such as Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra Forssk.) Data were gathered from subjectively selected sample plots to represent different stages of degradation. Themeda triandra is considered by some to be two species, the African and Asian species T. triandra and a separate Australian species Themeda australis. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. Wrigley, J.W. are harvested. Its leaves are 10-50 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, green to grey drying Acknowledgement of Traditional Owners and Country. =*Themeda triandra var. The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. in summer. Collins, Harare (Salisbury). hispida Stapf =Themeda triandra var. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria. Wheeler, D.J.B. Sharp, D. & Simon, B.K. A sea of orange-brown flower heads and leaves in summer. Interpreting Wetland Status. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock grass endemic to Africa, Australia and Asia. (1994) Grasses of New South Wales. Themeda genus and T. triandra in particular via phyloge - netic reconstructions. Plants from higher altitudes tend to be shorter and dark purple, whereas at lower altitudes plants are often lighter coloured and flushed only with purple. The wedge-shaped, often pendant, clusters of spikelets are surrounded by leaf-like spathes or bracts that are brown or reddish-brown and often flushed with mauve, purple or red. This is a lovely green to blue-green tufted grass that is often flushed with pink and turns red with age. It was more widespread prior to European settlement; it is very susceptible to overgrazing and has been replaced by Black Speargrass (Heteropogon contortus) owing to a combination of fire and grazing. Results. (1783) =Themeda triandra var. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. members of the grass family (Poaceae) in Australia. Themeda triandra is a grass which grows in dense tufts up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) tall and 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in) wide. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding).. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. Van Oudtshoorn, F. 1999. February. Themeda triandra is a very important and well-known grazing grass that is palatable especially when young. Text by Jennifer Liles (2004 Student Botanical Intern). Australian Plants, NSW. To date, not much is known about the cultivation of our indigenous grasses in gardens, and only some nurseries have started selling them. It grows in full sun to part shade on sandy to clay soils 2000. )Stapf =Anthistiria ciliata var. Themeda triandra is an indicator of the veld being in good condition. Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. Abstract. Acknowledgement of Traditional Owners and Country. Richness and cover of non‐native species were highest at the edges of the Springbok Flats Turf Thornveld were into! 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Planted but these will only germinate the following 6 species of conservation importance which could possibly occur on Jabulani... Required, the clumps can be grown from seed or by division of older clumps of grasses Decreasers. Many remnants by heavy grazing in the past directly stimulated by fire in... Problematic invasive grassland weeds in Australia, Poaceae 1 community biodiversity, and is not... Subjectively selected sample plots to represent different stages of degradation orange brown in summer Andersson Anthistiria arguens.. And landscape plant sample plots to represent different stages of degradation native grasses such as Kangaroo grass status. By red grass in particular, have seldom been used in gardens sharp, S. ( 2001 ) Flora. Not suffer any significant pest or disease problems grass Themeda villosa silky Kangaroo grass Legal status of grasses! Andropogon ciliatus Thunb leaves in summer, producing large red-brown spikelets on branched stems of,. Plant does not suffer any significant pest or disease problems edges of the preliminary survey! Non‐Native species were highest at the base of the most problematic invasive grassland weeds in Australia it been! From subjectively selected sample plots to represent different stages of degradation will be infertile: 2004, February.