This practice is often referred to as GitOps and is gaining momentum with projects like Flux for Kubernetes. One common problem with Infrastructure as Code is that you often end up with a million variables that have to be configured. IaC applies proven best practices from software development, such as version control, testing and CI/CD, to strengthen the reliability, security and quality of the infrastructure being managed. Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is the management of infrastructure (networks, virtual machines, load balancers, and connection topology) in a descriptive model, using the same versioning as DevOps team uses for source code. While the pull request provides a feedback and review mechanism, it can run certain tests such as linting and unit tests to provide immediate feedback, while a human also reviews these changes. Reason why simply can be traced to two reasons: If you follow the build once, deploy many principle (and you should) then the infrastructure code should not be impacted when you add / remove environments on your CI / CD road to production. Infrastructure as code is one of the core philosophies of the DevOps culture, which aims to reduce friction and improve collaboration between different organizations and teams. The automation scripts needs to run on developer systems, on build agent in CI / CD pipeline, perhaps even in cloud; managing all the host systems for correct versions of python or powershell modules is simply toil, and you want to make sure that all environments are as equal as possible. View Infrastructure as Code.docx from ECON 101 at Xavier School. Infrastructure as Code is one of the key practices in DevOps. This approach reduces operational overhead and risk to manage or change infrastructure. Terraform is not much better in this regard either: https://blog.gruntwork.io/terraform-tips-tricks-loops-if-statements-and-gotchas-f739bbae55f9, Solution is to use imperative code for orchestration, and declarative code for resource definitions. The new edition introduces three core practices for using Infrastructure as Code to make changes safely and easily. If the answer is yes, add it to the test suite. During these stress tests, it is critical monitoring all the components of the system to identify whether there is any bottleneck. Development principles that date all the way back to the beginning of Extreme Programming will provide the best guidance for making Infrastructure as Code into a blessing rather than a curse. A good example is of this is a combination of Powershell and ARM templates. It also can hook to CI/CD pipelines to automatically trigger action for a change introduced. Back in the days, when the DevOps movement started, people realized that the work of IT operations (system administrators) is very chaotic. However, there is still a risk that the deployment fails at the final stage where it tries to deploy. To give a context to the discussion, this is (IMHO) the ideal interface of an Infrastructure as Code system: As an example of imperative infrastructure as code, imagine scripting everything down in a programming language of your choice (e.g. We touched on the topic of idempotency in previous section. It leverages agile engineering tools and practices to provision and manage highly reliable infrastructure at speed. Important feature of declarative approach is idempotency. This makes developers much more productive. At this point, application pipelines enter the CD stage and deploy a production-ready version on the infrastructure. IaC helps you automate the infrastructure deployment process in a repeatable, consistent manner, which has many be… So the real idea behind infrastructure as code is: How do we take the process—in some sense, the things that we were pointing and clicking to achieve—how do we take that and capture that in a codified way? In the years since companies have implemented IaC, a few have been able to master the art of doing it without much trouble. 3 principles of Infrastructure as Code: What every manager should know Gary Thome Vice President and Chief Technologist, Converged Datacenter Infrastructure, HPE One of the primary objectives for any DevOps effort is to automatically provision and manage physical infrastructure through code, rather than through manual, hardware-centric processes. Amazon's sustainability initiatives: Half empty or half full? Privacy Policy Principle 1 — imperative orchestration, declarative resource definitions. What is configuration management? Define everything as code is obvious from the name, and creates repeatability and consistency. Build a DevOps feedback loop with these CI/CD tools, Weigh the pros and cons of outsourcing software development, Software development outsourcing throughout the lifecycle, Using the saga design pattern for microservices transactions, New Agile 2 development aims to plug gaps, complement DevOps, How to master microservices data architecture design, What the critics get wrong about serverless costs, How Amazon and COVID-19 influence 2020 seasonal hiring trends, New Amazon grocery stores run on computer vision, apps. Testing that you can increase the application load and that both the code and the infrastructure will react to it is critical, so that your environment will adapt to changing load conditions. A̶z̶u̶r̶e̶ ̶C̶L̶I̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶n̶o̶t̶ ̶i̶d̶e̶m̶p̶o̶t̶e̶n̶t̶ ̶t̶o̶ ̶s̶t̶a̶r̶t̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶,̶ ̶b̶u̶t̶ ̶w̶r̶a̶p̶p̶i̶n̶g̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶c̶a̶l̶l̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶ ̶s̶i̶m̶p̶l̶e̶ ̶”̶i̶f̶”̶ ̶s̶t̶a̶t̶e̶m̶e̶n̶t̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶ ̶a̶z̶ ̶a̶k̶s̶ ̶s̶h̶o̶w̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶a̶l̶s̶o̶ ̶v̶e̶r̶y̶ ̶v̶e̶r̶y̶ ̶s̶i̶m̶p̶l̶e̶.̶ (Since this article was written, Azure CLI actually became idempotent as well, so there is not need for if checks at all). Declarative approaches include Terraform, ARM templates, Azure CLI and Python Azure SDK, among others. The Sustainable Development Goals are a call for action by all countries – poor, rich and middle-income – to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. In this article you will have a look at the capabilities of the HttpClient component and also some hands-on examples. Can container tools box out configuration management? In today's infrastructure landscape, almost every cloud platform and tool supports infrastructure as code or configuration as code. Infrastructure as code is the automation of IT infrastructure. This is the exact approach Azure CLI takes, and that is why this command is so short: az aks create -g MyResourceGroup -n MyManagedCluster, altough we are creating a whole cluster with several VMs, a load balancer etc. An example might be northeurope for a region, or a GUID for default subscription where developers work. And this code can help you configure and deploy these infrastructure components quickly and consistently. DevOps is the combination of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools that increases your organization’s ability to deliver applications and services at high Convention over configuration goes only so far, there are some variables that you simply need to provide, like the region for example. Most of the system administration tasks were done manually or via self-written scripts. Declarative infrastructure … Cookie Preferences Be open to pull requests in other repositories maintained by other teams and individuals. Pacing with the changes and moving along the next generation of technology, IaC can make you catch the flight to success and advancement. Imagine that an engineer changes something in the version control repo, and before these changes are deployed the validations within a CI/CD system warn of a potential issue solely because of the test suite validating incoming changes. There's a change, in terms of the dynamism of our infrastructure. Instead of making all such parameters mandatory, simply hard-code the default value in the script itself. If there is a failure down the stages, it can be tied back to a change that was introduced. As we discussed here, IAC has its own set of responsibilities and practices.Configuration as code is a process for managing application configuration data. Infrastructure as Code, and how to leverage the capabilities of Amazon Web Services in this realm to support DevOps initiatives. There is an exception to this principle, if you use some combination of encrypted secrets / configuration git tracking / GitOps, but this is out of scope of this article. Open source software such as Docker and Kubernetes allows users to declaratively specify the container spec and deployment specifications in a YAML file. Similar behavior can be observer with each complex Azure resources (e.g. In this approach, I can look up all my connections. Why go through all this effort when the change can be done via the click of a button in the UI? We can add a load balancer with a single API call to the cloud provider, rather than procure and install additional hardware. If you're starting out with validating changes, tackle the known risks from your test suite now; as your experience and confidence grow, organically develop into a test-in-production methodology. Speaking of Azure, languages that we used for orchestration include Powershell, shell, Python and Golang. Infrastructure as Code or IaC is short is the use of a descriptive model to manage different aspects of cloud infrastructure, including networks, connection topology, virtual machines, and others. They’re not, and there’s a reason we have two distinct terms.IAC is a process for managing infrastructure. ), Jupyter notebooks, or markdown files. To achieve this, build artifacts with a versioning scheme such as semantic versioning. No change goes in once the application is packaged and deployed; every change (commit in version) creates an immutable artifact for later consumption. Writing tests for infrastructure is a learning process, and teams can build iteratively upon them. Like the principle that the same source code generates the same binary, an IaC model generates the same environment every time it is applied. Each principle drives a new logical view of the technical architecture and organizational structure. It sounds like a good idea to test changes to your infrastructure, but the overhead to build and maintain a test suite is more work than using infrastructure as code. As you start to roll out changes, document the failures and associated risks and ask yourself: Can we test for this risk before the deployment begins, to catch it early? The version of the descriptive model mentioned above is the same as the one used in the source code … Enabling a fast response to new IT requirements through IaC assisted deployment not only assures higher security and … The key concept which many teams do not follow is that these artifacts, generated for a change that was introduced, should enable teams to track these changes back to version control. For infrastructure artifacts, the next evolutionary stage in their lifecycle is the change management pipeline, which extends the software delivery pipeline mechanism to also deliver changes to the infrastructure. The ingredients of infrastructure as code The first thing to remember is that IAC is not a product, it's a methodology. Infrastructure as Code (IaC) brings automation to the provisioning process, which was traditionally done manually. “Infrastructure as Code” (IaC) is another way that people talk about the same idea. Infrastructure as code principles: How IaC works and how to use it Once you have a basic understanding of infrastructure as code principles, it's time to focus on the steps to build a solid foundation for an infrastructure-as-code implementation. Ideal simplistic interface when starting with a project is to have a script in the root of the project to deploy the infrastructure. Shadow IT poses significant security risks as well as potential unforeseen costs for the organization. The only thing you should not hard-code are secrets, but in many cases you can dynamically generate them for non-prod environments where security is much more strict. In any multi-tenant IT environment, noisy neighbors can be an issue. Configuration management tools such as Ansible, Chef and Puppet support the ability to specify the tasks to perform on a deployed operating system in a file. Infrastructure as code is a declarative model for defining what your infrastructure is going to look like. Updates, how to version the infrastructure and migrations are out of scope here, but the idea should be clear that you cannot simply rely on full idempotency down to the last property to always keep the production system running, and you will have a need for migration scripts, especially when dealing with stateful resources. Why make that effort to test changes to infrastructure? Let’s say we want to deploy a AKS cluster in Azure. You'll need the right set of knowledge,... Stay on top of the latest news, analysis and expert advice from this year's re:Invent conference. As the example above shows, you will probably be done with Azure CLI approach in 2–3 minutes, and is much simpler to start with. One example is that ARM templates creates resources in parallel in a DAG fashion using depends_on fields. This velocity of change can be intimidating. Example with ARM template: In terms of features, there is some really cool stuff with ARM templates, Terraform and Ansible. This approach is faster and easier to integrate with other orchestrators (like CI / CD, run in docker etc.). Often, infrastructure teams add low-level tests for their declarative code, which becomes a pain to manage over time. When applied to infrastructure-as-code projects, this means teams can lint their configuration files and run unit tests on top of the code definitions to provide immediate feedback to the developer making changes. With IaC developers could reque… Version control automatically adds traceability, rollback and correlation to the changes made to the infrastructure. Since change is inevitable in this new-age infrastructure, consider setting up a Kubernetes cluster in your cloud provider. A comprehensive guide. Remember that this approach to infrastructure is optimized for change. The deployment will simply fail with either PropertyChangeNotAllowed or BadRequest errors. Developers used to think it was untouchable, but that's not the case. This could get very verbose, too granular and hard to maintain. can be daunting. Example could be vm-northeurope-my-domain. Infrastructure as code is sometimes referred to as programmable or software-defined infrastructure. But putting their code in version control is just the first step in the journey -- this opens doors for other teams to see your code, contribute and collaborate. Today's technology world is changing at unprecedented speeds. These runbooks can be scripts, packages or modules (Bash, Python, PowerShell, etc. Here is an example where Powershell is used to orchestrate multiple ARM templates, including a conditional deployment depending on a parameter: https://github.com/DenisBiondic/DeviceCache.Containers/blob/master/Create-Infrastructure.ps1. Sign-up now. Navigating this world of cloud providers, containers and container orchestration, service meshes, serverless, etc. IaC is a way to manage infrastructure and all its bits and pieces — networks to VMs to load balancers — into a single source of truth about an environment. This doesn't work in a cloud environment where servers have to be configured and deployed on the fly. Example of declarative approach would be using Azure ARM templates or Terraform. Teams should strive to put their operation runbooks inside version control as well. Basically, this means that your Infrastructure as Code can be executed multiple times always producing the same results, without errors on existing resources. Most commonly, these engineers utilize a framework like Chef or Ansible or Puppet to define their infrastructure. Some treat CAC and infrastructure as code (IAC) as the same thing. for a kubernetes cluster) can be automatically generated when script runs under a really powerful development user in development subscription, which is not a possibility in a production subscription where the service principal needs to pre-exist. Teams that successfully do this are highly mature and have established guardrails to manage risks of testing in production, such as monitoring, observability and mature deployment schemes. Declarative infrastructure would be equivalent to specifying resources in a JSON file and saying to a tool: “go do it however you like, but I want this state at the end”. After teams put their source code in version control, they soon realize that multiple people make changes to these files and submit them back. I am talking about idempotency of the script as a whole, it does not automatically mean that each little call in your script has to be idempotent, but the idempotency blocks (version boundaries) should be clearly defined. What in the world is Infrastructure as Code? IaC came into vogue with the ascension of AWS. Let's debunk... AWS' annual December deluge is in full swing. Be discussed under principle of “ don ’ t important in this realm to support DevOps initiatives this approach faster. Package the script in docker, and solve the problem verbose, too granular and hard to maintain in! 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